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This however only addresses the error due to incomplete spatial coverage of measurements.As there are other potential sources of error, such as urban warming near meteorological stations, many other methods have been used to verify the approximate magnitude of inferred global warming.These methods include inference of surface temperature change from vertical temperature profiles in the ground (bore holes) at many sites around the world, rate of glacier retreat at many locations, and studies by several groups of the effect of urban and other local human influences on the global temperature record.A related Plotter page may be used to graphically display individual columns of the table data, overlaid by an adjustable smoothing to examine the medium- and long-term trends. + GISTEMP Team, 2016: , 48, RG4004, doi:10.1029/2010RG000345.See the article index for a list of NASA news and features related to the GISTEMP analysis. The basic GISS temperature analysis scheme was defined in the late 1970s by James Hansen when a method of estimating global temperature change was needed for comparison with one-dimensional global climate models.July 19, 2016: The Graphs page has been redesigned to use interactive features like moving/scaling the image or zooming on a specific time interval. When referencing the GISTEMP data provided here, please cite both this webpage and also our most recent scholarly publication about the data.
See the Updates to Analysis page for detailed update information. The scheme was based on the finding that the correlation of temperature change was reasonably strong for stations separated by up to 1200 km, especially at middle and high latitudes.
Before contacting us, please check if your question about the GISTEMP analysis is answered in the FAQ. This fact proved sufficient to obtain useful estimates for global mean temperature changes.
The analysis method was fully documented in Hansen and Lebedeff (1987), including quantitative estimates of the error in annual and 5-year mean temperature change.
This was done by sampling at station locations a spatially complete data set of a long run of a global climate model, which was shown to have realistic spatial and temporal variability.
If the FAQ does not answer your question, please address your inquiry to Dr. Other researchers participating in the GISTEMP analysis are Avi Persin, Dr. Temperature analyses were carried out prior to 1980, notably those of Murray Mitchell, but most covered only 20-90°N latitudes. 1981) showed that, contrary to impressions from northern latitudes, global cooling after 1940 was small, and there was net global warming of about 0.4°C between the 1880s and 1970s.
The early analysis scheme went through a series of enhancements that are listed and illustrated on the History Page.